What are Quantum Computers ?
Quantum computers are the device which uses the properties of quantum state such as superposition and entanglement to do computation. We can understand it in this way that it encodes the information into a quantum state and then perform operations on it. Later Richard Feynman suggested that this computer can perform the calculations that the normal computers would feasibly do.
We have a number of computers and supercomputers too, then why there was a need to have a quantum computer? We relied on supercomputers' computers for solving problems.
These supercomputers have thousands of CPUs and GPU cores but they also cannot perform certain types of calculations which seemed to be easy in the beginning. This was the reason that there was a need for a faster computing system that can perform such types of calculations without any error and in less amount time. The solution was this Quantum Computers which uses the physical properties of quantum state and perform the operations and give the answer. Suppose you want to find an item from N no of items. Let the N no be 1 trillion and it takes 1 microsecond to check one. The classic supercomputer takes 1 week to solve this question whereas it takes only 1 second for quantum computers to solve the problem. This was the performance of a quantum computer when compared to supercomputers.Uses of Quantum Computers :
1. Artificial intelligence and machine learning
These computers are used for developing artificial intelligence and machine learning. It can create a Multi-Dimensional simulation which makes it easy to study AI. The daily use can be seen in voice assistance.
2. Computational chemistry
The quantum state in the tiniest molecule is extremely enormous which makes it impossible for processing on normals computers. The ability of quantum computers to focus on 1 and 0 can give the machine enough power to map the molecules of substances which in return can open opportunities for pharmaceutical products.
Today the number of cyberattacks on governmental sites or industrial sites has increased. The hackers get into such sites and take all the assets from there. Quantum computers can help to stop such types of attacks.
4. Finance modeling
Many industries use computers to calculate the probabilities of the investment of their assets in the market. It is very time-consuming and power-consuming for normal classical computers to calculate. So the industrialist who manages billions of dollars uses quantum computers to calculate the probability of fruitful investment.
5. Whether forecasting
For classical computers, it takes long time to calculate the physical aspect and predict the weather. As the calculation of data is high in quantum computers it is very easy to calculate the data of whether and predict it with accuracy in no time. Various physical factors like air pressure, temperature, wind direction, etc. Are to be mathematically Operated to predict the weather.