Large Hardron Collider
In the 21st century, we are experiencing the luxurious and most advanced technology of all human history. This is because of scientists who work on theories and build some extraordinary stuff which we are normally using in our daily day-to-day life.
But for getting such advanced machines and products there is hard work of many scientists and years of research in it.
The large hadron collider is a particle collider which is situated near the France - Switzerland border near Geneva. The CERN a European organization for nuclear research and along with 10,000 scientists and almost 100 countries collaborate to build this collider.
It was built in 1998-2008. It is the largest particle collider around the world below 175 meters under the ground and circumference of 27 kilometers.
The purpose of building LHC a 10 billion$ project was to research the concepts of physics which were impossible to study normally. The behavior of quantum particles when they are accelerated to the speed of light to study the deep space structure, understand the general relativity and its impact on the quantum state. It was tested on 10th September 2008. But the result never came because of some technical issues which have damaged its 58 magnets and vacuum pipes. After 14 months they tried and collided two opposing particle beams either protons or lead nuclei. The first run was successful and lead to many discoveries.
The top five discoveries of LHC are:
1. The Higgs boson: In this world, everything poses mass how little it may be. But in the micro-world, some particles theoretically didn't possess mass which is called mediators. But in reality, they do possess mass. This could only be detected at LHC and the discovery opened up a new field of research.
2. Tetraquarks: Scientists used to think that matter is made up of two types of quarks baryons(consisting of protons and neutrons) consisting of 3 quarks and mesons (such as pions and kaons) were made by pairs of quarks and and-quarks. But are these the only possibilities? The Experiment at LHC bends this arrangement of quarks.
3. Missing supersymmetry: Theorists put forward supersymmetry to give the answer to some issues like why do some small particles have mass, how electromagnetism and strong and weak nuclear forces are tied together, and the biggest question of what is dark matter is made of. This theory is not fully understood by scientists but we cannot deny its effect on versions of assumptions on particles.
4. Coordinated motion: While doing the testing when the scientists skip some steps they found out that the paths which the subatomic particles usually took were replaced by apparent coordination. Scientists named the state QGP (quark-gluon plasma) which flows like liquid and when it cools it coordinates with particles. If this hypothesis is correct then it can provide information on the structure and interaction of protons.